Away from the Western Front : 28th – 29th July, 1917.

        Captain Tattersall DSO

Captain Tattersall DSO

Captain Philip Charles Paul Tattersall © IWM (HU 118871)

The warning recorded about the dangerous currents off the beaches near Gaza proved to be horribly accurate. The war diary, usually so concise and impersonal, recorded the death and funeral of Captain Tattersall with more detail than usual.

Philip Tattershall had grown up in the Gray’s Inn Road in Holborn, not far from the Finsbury Rifles drill hall in Pentonville. His father had run a small business as an ecclesiastical furnisher and the family lived above ‘the shop’. After the death of his parents in the 1890s, he moved with his siblings, an aunt and cousin to Acre Lane, Brixton. He was still at school -possibly the City of London School for Boys- aged 15 in 1901 but by 1911 was working as a clerk in a bank.

A well-liked officer in the battalion, he had served in Gallipoli. He was promoted from Lieutenant to Captain in July 1916 and was awarded the DSO after the first two battles of Gaza in spring 1917. He was mentioned in dispatches in the list of honours put forward by Lt-Gen Murray in June 1917. This only came through in January 1918, some 5 months after his death. Perhaps it offered some comfort to his surviving sisters and brothers.

 

Date: 28/7/17

Battn finding working parties of 1 officer and 50 of ranks for defence works of Welsh and 7 LINT Redruths respectively also parties of 1 officer and 50 of ranks such for Barry HQ (Suffolk) and 270 Bde RFA – remainder of Batt employed on training. Draft inspected by commanding officer at 09.00. A most regrettable accident occurred about 16.15, Capt PCP Tattersall DSO being accidentally drowned whilst bathing from the foreshore here. Capt Tattersall was a non-swimmer and was carried into deep water by the backward of an exceptionally large wave. The surf on this coast being at all times heavy, with very powerful currents and …wash. It was noticed to be under in difficulties by the other officers bathing at the time but inspite of everything, that was done and very gallant personal efforts on the parts of 2/LT.H.L Windsor and 2/LT A. Smith to save him (the latter nearly losing his own life in the attempt) he was carried into deep water and drowned. Valuable aid was also rendered by the following all of this Battn. 2 /LT MORGAN RFN LEE WELTONWR 4511SY 450232 RFN LINNEY AJ 451145 Rfn MARTIN WN, 2 LT A SMITH was pulled from the water in the nick of time and was only revived by artificial respiration ,he has since been sent into hospital

Capt Tattersall’s body was recovered about 5 or 6 minutes after the time he was first noticed to be in difficulties. …. endeavour was made to restore life. Artificial respiration being resorted to for over 1 ½ hours with no avail. The M.O (Capt Cummins) who was present throughout then pronounced life to be extinct.  Being confirmed in his opinion by the M.O of the 1/5 Bedfords who was sent for at the time the accident happened.

Date: 29/7/17

(Sunday) Holy Communion celebrated at 08.00 by Chaplain 1/10 London at these HQs – Capt Tattersall’s body conveyed to DEIR.EL.BELAH MILITARY CEMETERY. Funeral was conducted by the chaplain (The Revd DIXON SPAIN) and the mourners were Lt Col AH WINDSOR CMG, MAJOR F S HAMMOND CAPT W S OWEN CAPT HEILGERS, LIEUT ROBERTSON 2ND LIEUT WYNN EVANS 2ND LIEUT HL WINDSOR and a representative party of NCOs and men from B coy( the late officer’s company). The MO was also present, as also was Lt Col BIEDSO from 2/25 BN LONDON REGT and late adjutant of the BN. The funeral took place at 0915 at which time BRIGADIER GENERAL A MUDGE, COMMANDER OF 162nd INF brigade accompanied by 2nd Lt WB GOSTLING

Away from the Western Front : 15th – 27th July, 1917.

 Umbrella Hill

Umbrella Hill Mcbey
Umbrella Hill: the most advanced of the redoubts guarding Gaza.James McBey © IWM (Art.IWM ART 1520)“…British infantrymen advance at night across No Man’s Land towards Turkish positions on Umbrella Hill, which rises up gently in the right background. The British soldiers, carrying rifles, move out of their advanced trenches in the left of the composition, with the dry ground in front of them dotted with shell holes and clusters of barbed wire. The dark sky is illuminated by a halo of light over the distant hill, caused by British artillery fire on Turkish positions…”

The  gruelling daily round of training , enemy shelling and working on the defences carried on throughout July.  The opening of the rest camp at El Arish was especially welcome. Soldiers could now have a break from the hardships in the front line without travelling as far as Cairo and its temptations. El Arish was now easily reached from the front by the railway built by the Royal Engineers and the Egyptian Labour Corps.

Location MARINA VIEW Date: 15/7/17

Holy Communion at 08.00 by Chaplain. Battn finding a working party of 3 Off and 150 other ranks for defence works under orders of 163 Bde. (07.30-12.00) Slight enemy shelling of our front line trenches during morning. Further working party firing found 2 officers and 100 other ranks for night work on defences under orders of the Bde (19.30-00.30).

Date: 16/7/17

Battn doing training. Gas helmet drill, bombing, Lewis gun, range finding, signalling classes being held throughout morning. Night working party of 5 officers and 300 other ranks defences works under orders of 161 BDE (19.45-00.45). Capt GR MELLOR PG MELLOR P.G BN KINGS att 1/11 London proceeded to Kantara for Temp: Duty as 54th Divs base details vice Capt. St. J.Brown 1/4 Northants to Battalion duty as 2nd in command. EL ARISH rest camp opened for men of force – 22 other ranks proceeded from this battalion – weekly leave into Egypt …and to 2 officers and 14 other ranks.

Date: 17/7/17

Battn training specialist classes (06.00-12.00) 17 other ranks reported from hospital. Commanding officer and Capt. Tattersall. DSO visited OC 1/5 Devons in front line trenches (Samsons Ride E) during afternoon. Reciprocal shelling.

Date: 18/7/17

Working party of 1 officer and 55 other ranks for work under orders of 495th Coy RE (07.30-12.30) remainder of Bn training. Night working parties of 5 officers 255 other ranks for (work on defences under orders of Ryde (8th Hants) and Westham (1/6 Essex) HQs (19.30-00.45).

Date: 19/7/17

Heavy reciprocal shelling first thing in morning. Battn rearmed all long rifles exchanged for short ones. Medical inspection by M.O of 2 companies during day reinforcement of 11 officers and 8 other ranks arrived.

Date: 20/7/17

Bn finding working parties of 4 officers and 200 other ranks for work on defences under the orders of 495 CORE (Kents) also 1 off and 50 other ranks for work on defences under the orders of 495, also 1 off and 50 other ranks for work with 270 BDE RFA (0700-12.30) Remainder of Bn training at 21.00 raid by 1/5 Bedford Rgt on the Turkish Position of Umbrella Hill. They encountered little opposition..being thoroughly demoralised by our fire. Raiders much hampered by dual smoke. Raid entirely successful the whole work raided except North corner. 1 Turkish officer and 101 other ranks, definitely counted dead, 17 prisoners including 7 wounded, captured 1 since died – 1 machine gun, 1 trench mortar, a number of rifles and other booty brought back.. 1 Winnewerfer destroyed. Up to time of withdrawal our casualties only 10 but from onset Turks directed severe fire from 5.9 on our reserves, Battle HQ and communication trench in rear maintaining fire with violence till 23.00 and after with less intensity till 02.00. Our casualties thro’ this, and fire on our front line trenches total 80-100.

Date: 21/7/17

Gas inspection of all ranks of the battn by the Divs Gas Officer (7-11.00)

Specialist training – right working parties found of 3 officers 150 of ranks under orders of 495 Co RE (KENT) a19.30, 1 off and 60 other ranks to SHEIKH AIJLIN under orders of 1/8 HANTS – 2 officers and 100 other ranks to Westham (1/6 Essex HQ) at 20.30. English letter and parcel mail received.

Date: 22/7/17

Holy Communion at 08.30 by Chaplain. Working party found of 1 off and 50 other rannks for work under orders of 270 BDE RFA. Heavy reciprocal shelling.

Date: 23/7/17

Battn training. Specialist classes being held.

Date: 24/7/17

Working parties being found 3 officers and 150 other ranks for defence works under orders of 163 BDE (07.00-12.00) Also 2 officers and 100 other ranks for work on defences under 163 Bed at SHEIKH AJLIN (19.30-23.30) Bivouac areas shelled by Turkish guns during morning and again at 16.15. Slight damage. 11 other ranks rejoined from hospital.

Date: 25/7/17

Small working party engaged under orders of 62 BDE burying cable. Remainder of Bn at work improving dugouts. Specialist training separately as usual. Night working party of 2 officers and 100 of ranks for work under orders of 162 Bde.

Date: 26/7/17

Battn on company and specialist training. Reciprocal shelling during day.

Date: 27/7/17

Second raid by 1/5 Bedford on Umbrella Hill. Zero hour 21.00. Heavy barring fire by her artillery. Turks counter attached our troops after they had entered enemy work. Sharp fight ensued with bombs and bayonets. Estimated number of Turks killed 15-20 and 20 prisoners taken. Our casualties 5 killed and 2 officers and 12 of ranks wounded, 1 machine gun captured and brought away from work but dropped off on way back. Heavy Turkish battery (?) and fire of shrapnel and HE on our front line trenches avoided by raiding re…….by going round flank. 2/LT DEVERELL and 2LT Morgan (the latter returning for duty from 54 Division HQ depot KANTARA 2 /LT ALDEN having relieved him) and a draft of 109 other ranks arrived from Egyptian Base Depot – MUSTAPHA.

Arsenal FC Collection

London has always been known for its association with football. Islington is the home of one of London’s greatest football clubs, Arsenal. The club was founded in 1886 and over the course of its history, they have gone on to win a number of titles and gained worldwide prestige. Originally Arsenal was based in Woolwich, but in 1913 the club built a new stadium in Highbury and they moved to Islington.

The museum holds a fine collection of objects related to Arsenal and some of these are showcased in their permanent gallery. The objects vary from photographs, match programmes, shirts, medals and flags. These have come from the fans and club, and they provide a good insight into the experiences of fans as well as some of the club’s most interesting matches and greatest achievements.

I’m Fatima and I am a student at the University of Westminster. For one of my modules, I have been volunteering at the museum. During my time here, I have been working with the museum’s Arsenal FC collection. My tasks involved locating the collection’s objects and updating information about the collection in the museum’s Adlib database. Working on this particular project was very interesting, because I learnt about the risks associated with museum objects and the way to handle them properly.

To explore the museum’s database yourself, why not follow this link? http://islington.adlibhosting.com/?extra=9

Here are 3 objects I found interesting from the Arsenal FC collection (either on display or in store):

  • Object Number: 1999.67
  • Object: Photograph
  • Object Description: This is a photograph of one of Arsenal’s football players – Ted Drake. Ted Drake joined Arsenal in March 1934 and he went on to play 167 games for the club. During his time at Arsenal he helped his team win 3 titles and this included two league divisions and one FA cup.
  • Object Number: 2005.22
  • Object: Match Programme
  • Object Description: This is the official programme of Arsenal’s match against Manchester United in 1933. The game was played on 17th May and its kick off was at 7:45 pm. The cover depicts one of Arsenal’s football players – David O’Leary. This is because it was his final match for Arsenal.1730.JPG
  • Object Number: 1999.71
  • Object: Scrapbook
  • Object Description: This is a scrapbook of Arsenal’s 1948-49 season. It was compiled by fan Harry Trigg. Harry was a commentator at the time and his scrapbook includes a signed team photograph.

Here are some images of objects from the Arsenal FC collection:

1756

1742

Away from the Western Front : 1st – 14th July 1917

Night Working Parties

The bombardment of Gaza James McBey IWM1508

The bombardment of Gaza: Moonlight from an observation post near the sea. James McBey.© IWM (Art.IWM ART 1508)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Working on the defences at night was another solution to the problem of warfare in the searing heat. Needless to say, this was extremely unpopular amongst the men. The work was planned and directed by the division’s Royal Engineers. The 495th (1st Kent) Field Company  who directed the works had served at Gallipoli while attached to another division. and had joined the strength of the 54th Division once in Egypt in 1916.

Date: 1/7/17

Holy Communion by Chaplain 0800. 5 officers and 300 men required for work on defences under orders 163.INF BRIGADE. (0700-1200).

Date: 2/7/17

Battn finding working parties 5 officers and 300 other ranks for night work on defences under orders of 6th ESSEX REGT. H.Q. Range finding commenced also Bombing course under Regimental arrangements (20.15 – 00.45). EL ARISH REDOUBT and UMBRELLA HILL bombarded by 54 Divsl Artillery (15.05-15.25).

Date: 3/7/17

No working parties required. Training of Specialists carried out during morning. Usual Bathing Parades before 1100 and after 1500 for remainder. Slight reciprocal shelling. 2nd LT D. GRAY. SCOTTISH RIFLES ATTcd 1/11 LONDON RGT REPORTED for duty.

Date: 4/7/17

Battn finding working parties 3 officers and 150 other ranks for work on defences under orders of 163 Bde. Orders for relief of 1/5 BEDFORD in Redoubt line cancelled. One company proceeded to relieve 1 Coy  1/4 Northants attached 1/5 BEDFORDS as Company in Reserve. A Coy (Capt HEILGER) rejoined the battn from attachment with 1/10 LONDONS at WART HILL.

Date: 5/7/17

Battn finding working parties 2 officers and 100 other ranks for work on MERIONETH communication trenches. 2 officers and 100 other ranks for work under orders of 163 Bde and 1 party, 1 officer and 50 other Ranks under orders of the 232 Bde (75 Divs).

Date: 6/7/17

Bayonet fighting (6-7) Company and specialist training (9-12) GAS Helmet Drill. 3 Officers and 200 other ranks  work on defence under orders of WESTHAM HQ (1/6 ESSEX) (19.30-00.45).

Date: 7/7/17

Specialised Training during morning. 2 Officers and 200 other ranks working on Merioneth Communication Trench (19.30-00.30).CAPT AT LEWTHWAITE rejoined Bn from Hospital. Orders received for 3 Platoons 1/5 DEVONS attached this battalion to leave and take over portion of Front Line trenches in LEFT SECTOR. 15 other ranks K.R.R attached to this battalion reported for duty. ENGLISH parcel mail received.

Date: 8/7/17

Detachment 1/5 DEVONS left the Bn (0545) and proceeded to front line trenches. Company on detachment with 1/5 BEDFORDS (Capt W.S.Owen) rejoined battalion on relief by 1 Company 2/5 HANTS – Holy Communion by Chaplain – 08.00.

Location MARINA VIEW Date: 9/7/17

No day working parties, Battalion Training (Company and Specialists) Night working party of 2 officers and 100 other ranks for work on Merioneth Communication trenches (7.30-00.30) 13 other ranks rejoined from hospital.

Date 10/7/17

Battn finding working party of 3 officers and 250 other ranks for work on defences under orders of 161 Bde ,495 COY R.E (Kent). Remainder Bn training. Night working party of 2 officers and 100 (7.30-12.00) other ranks  found for defence works under orders of O.C 1/4 Essex (20.45-00.30) – 30 ranks rejoined from hospital.

Date 11/7/17

Battn finding working parties of 5 officers and 130 O/Ranks for work on defence under orders 163 BDE (07.30-12.30) Remainder of Battn training. Small ENGLISH mail rec’d.

Date 12/7/17

Battn finding work parties of 3 officers and 130 other ranks for defence work under direction of 495 Coy RE (KENT). Also 3 officers and 120 of ranks for work under orders 163 BDE (07.30-12.30) night working party of 1 officer and 50 other ranks under orders of OC 1/4 ESSEX RGT (20.30-00.45) Capt Mellor – 1st GARs BN Kings Liverpool RGT attached 1/11 LONDONS reported for duty.

Date: 13/7/17

Battn finding working party of 3 officers and 150 other ranks for defence works at SHEIKH AJLIN under orders of 163 Bde. Party shelled by enemy – no casualties remainder of battn and specialists training.

Date: 14/7/17

Battn finding working parties of 3 officers and 150 other ranks and 2 officers and 125 other ranks for work on defences under orders of 161 Bde and 495 7 Coy RE (Kent) (07.30-12.30) – Capt WS Owen left Bn for temp duties with 54th Divs Successful raid by 1/8 Hants (TF) of 163 Bde on beach post (Left sector) timed for 23.00 under cover of heavy bombardment by our artillery. Our captures 18 Turkish prisoners and 1 MG on sledge mounting. 20 Turks killed and several buried in debris of Post due to our fire, our losses slight, 1 killed, 1 missing, 48 wounded. Later report from 163 Bde. Enemy killed beach post 48 (Sugar Loaf 12. Estimated number killed by our fire 25-30. Further captures 1 man died…and 16 rifles)

Away from the Western Front : 14th – 30th June 1917

Marina View

Sea at Gaza James Mc bey

Monitors bombarding Gaza, 1917. James McBey © IWM (Art.IWM ART 2950)

The 54th Division had moved to the sector of the front line near the Mediterranean Sea that was nicknamed ‘Marina View’. The Finsbury Rifles would have easier access to the sea for bathing and washing but this would come at a price. Marina View was frequently shelled by the nearby enemy artillery.

Work continued on reinforcing the defences in this part of the line. The working parties began early in the morning and finished just after midday due to the summer heat and the limited water rations. Sunstroke and heat exhaustion could be fatal.

 

Location MARINA VIEW. Date: 14/6/17

Day spent by Battn in clearing and squaring up new bivouac area.

Date: 15/6/17

Company and specialised training. Bathing parades by companies. Good foreshore. Bathing dangerous for indifferent swimmers. A Coy under command of Capt HEILGERS proceeded to HQ 1/10 London. Wart Hill for attachment during absence of a company of 1/10 London under training.

Date: 16/6/17

Company and specialised training. 9-12 noon. Lecture by Major Hammond to all signaller runners. Reciprocal shelling at intervals during the day.

Date: 17/6/17

Church parade abandoned owing to proximity to front line. Early morning communion services and voluntary evening services held instead by the chaplain (Capt.Rev. Dixon Spain). Battn furnished 1 officer and 100 men for work in connection with defences of WELSH REDOUBT. 2/LT Irwin reported from Zeitoun. 2 /LT Irwin and 2 LT Wynn Evans left battalion for 3 days DWS Gas course.

Date: 18/6/17

Specialists training – working party of 2 officers and 200 men furnished by battalion: for defences works of MERIONETH and Flintshire REDOUBTS. Hours employed 0700-1245 organised bathing parties by companies during the afternoon.

Date: 19/6/17

Battn employed on work on defences – 1 officer and 100 ranks for defences of Welsh Redoubt, 1 officer and 50 of Ranks to report to 270 Bde RFA and 1 officer and 50 of ranks to report to 163 Bde HQ ……by commanding officer, the Sand Bay ….of trenches, to the Coy of 1/5 DEVONS attached for instruction 3pm.

Date: 20/6/17

Battn finding 3 officers and 300 men for work on Merioneth, Flintshire and Welsh redoubts (0700-12.30). 2nd Lt  MACKAY AND 4 other ranks rejoined from the Red Camp at RAFA.

Date: 21/6/17

Battn finding working parties of 1 officer and 100 Other Ranks each for work on Merioneth and FLINTSHIRE REDOUBTS (0700-12.30). 2nd LT IRWIN 1/5 DEVONS AND 2LT WYN EVANS 1/11 LONDON rejoined from Divs Gas Course.

Date: 22/6/17

Battn finding working parties of 1 Officer and 100 Other Ranks each to work on MERIONETH, FLINTSHIRE and WELSH REDOUBTS (0700-12.30). Gas Helmet Drill for all ranks during afternoon.

Date: 23/6/17

Battn finding working parties of 1 officer and 100 Other Ranks each work on MERIONETH, FLINTSHIRE and WELSH REDOUBTS. Capt W.G COMBER and 2nd LT F.G. HEFFERON reported from Base details. 2nd LT MARGOLIOUTH (1/10 LONDON) 1/11 LONDON by 162 Bde for duty of 54 Divs BASE DETAILS. INSERAT

Date: 24/6/17

Holy Communion at Battn H.Q 0800. Voluntary Services for C of E and other denominations at 1800. Working Parties of 6 officers and 310 men found by Battn for night work on defences under orders of 161 Inf. Bde. Parties moved off 19.30, returned to Camp Area 0200 – 25th inst.2nd LT WINDSOR and 12 O/Ranks proceeded on 7 days leave to ALEXANDRIA.

Date: 25/6/17

Battn resting in morning. 3 officers and 300 men found for work in afternoon on dummy defences for practice purposes (Replica of UMBRELLA HILL) under orders of 162 INF Bde.

Date: 26/6/17

Battn finding working parties on communication trenches at MERIONETH, FLINTSHIRE and WELSH REDOUBTS of 2 officers and 150 O/Ranks, I officer and 50 O/Ranks respectively. Also party of 1 officer and 50 O/Ranks for 8th HANTS H.Q. SHEIKH AJLIN (0700-12.45). CAPT W. S. OWEN reported for duty from Staff Course MENA HOUSE, Cairo. 16 O/ Ranks returned from Hospital. 2nd LT RODGERS to Hospital. ENGLISH letter and parcel mail received.

Location MARINA VIEW Date: 27/6/17

Battn: finding 2 parties of 1 officer and 50 of other ranks each for work on WELCH and FLINTSHIRE REDOUBTS, also 2 officers and 150 men for work on communication trenches of MERIONETH REDOUBTS and a party of 1 officer and 50 other ranks  OC 1/8 HANTS REGT. SHEIKH AJLIN (0700-12.30). Gas Helmet Practice for all ranks 1700-1800. 60/Ranks rejoined from Hospital.

Date: 28/6/17

Battn finding working parties of an aggregate of 5 officers and 300 men for work on LEFT SECTOR DEFENCES under orders of O.C1/6 ESSEX REGT (night work 20.15-23.45). Gas Drill as usual for all ranks. Orders received for relief of 1/5 BEDFORDS in line of Redoubts (Merioneth, Flintshire and WELCH Redoubts).

Date: 29/6/17

Specialists and Gas Training. CAPT P.C.P. TATTERSHALL DSO rejoined from hospital. Bathing parades. Heavy reciprocal shelling during the morning of trench lines.

Date: 30/6/17

Battn finding working parties of an aggregate of 5 officers and 300 men for work on LEFT SECTOR defences under orders of 163 Brigade (0700-12.30). Usual Bathing Parades. Commanding officer visited LT Col E.W.BRIGTHEN CMG, 1/5 BEDFORDS as regards the relief of his LINE. Inspected MERIONETH, FLINTSHIREand WELCH LINE of redoubts with a view to taking over. LIEUT MURCH granted 4 weeks leave in ENGLAND.

 

Away from the Western Front : 1st – 13th June 1917

Training opposite Gaza

Gaza from Samson Ridge

A view of Gaza from Samson Ridge. George Westmoreland collection. © IWM (Q 12585)

More time was now being allocated for training now that the system of communication trenches had been dug along and behind the new front line facing Gaza. New officers and other ranks were joining the division and it was important that high standards were kept in up in all areas.

The 54th Division provided some of the specialised instruction. The signal sections attended a demonstration and lecture about carrier pigeons. The divisional veterinary section gave several lectures to officers about the management of and diseases in horses and mules. Camels were still used for bringing supplies up from the railhead on the coastal plain south of Gaza but mules were suited better to the rocky terrain ahead.

Conditions in the trenches deteriorated as the summer heat set in. It was recognised that well-trained and informed officers were key to managing good camp hygiene and thus keeping down the sickness rate..Lectures on sanitation were provided by the divisional medical sections

Following the boot and clothing inspection, new supplies reached the battalion. Greatcoats were needed at night when the temperature dropped.

Location DORSET HOUSE  Date: 1/6/17

Platoon and specialised training during morning. Reconnaissance by Commanding Officer of the Apex of SHEIKH ABBAS position for best route of approach in the event of a move by night from the battalion present position at Dorset House.

Date: 2/6/17

Platoon and specialist training till 1100. 1100-1200 Inspection by Company Officers of Men’s Clothing Boots..half holiday. Reciprocal shelling at intervals throughout the day LT WYNN EVANS  2013 arms (?) reported to B Coy CTC for  course of instruction  in Camel Management.

Date: 3/6/17

Divine Service under Rgt arrangements. Voluntary ……Servicing. LT H MA Goldschimdt reported to HQ 54 Div for instruction  in duties of Liaison Officer.

Date: 4/6/17

Early morning parade. Physical field TC. 9-12 Company Training. Battn finding working party 2 officers and 80 O/Ranks. Road marking under orders of Eastern Force RE. Officer.

Date: 5/6/17

Early Morning parades 9-12 Company training. 2 officers and 137 other ranks (3 platoons) attached to the Battn for instruction in various subjects connected with the operation in Palestine. One platoon of Devons posted to A.B&D companies respectively. The Battn innoculated against cholera.

Date: 6/6/17

Early morning parades 9-12 company training. Commanding Officer and adjutant visited 156 Inf Bde H.Q with a view to new position to be taken up in forthcoming move by the Battn.

Date: 7/6/17

Company training, Lieut HHA Goldschmidt returned from 54 Divis (Liaison Course) commanding officer proceeded to Nantern subsection as president of G.C.M Convened for 9th inst.

Date: 8/6/17

Commanding officer. 2 /LT W.Evans returned from 4 days course with Camel Transport Corps. Major T.S.Hammond (2nd in command) visited 1/4  R.Scots with regards to taking over on 13th inst.

Date: 9/6/17

Company training and nil inspections. Orders received in respect of the Battn relieving the 1/4 R.Scots at Marina View – Half Holiday.

Date: 10/6/17

Brigade Church Parade. Reciprocal shelling.

Date: 11/6/17

Company and specialised training. C.O. returned by night train from KANTARA. Heavy night reciprocal shelling. Successful raid by 52 Divs on an enemy strongpost. Garrison of 30. 45 man all captured or killed by us. Further we captured…(?) Lewis gun and 20 rifles. We sustained no casualties.

Location DORSET HOUSE Date 12/6/17

Company and specialist training. CAPT PRIDHAM 1/5 DEVONS all 1/11 Londons proceeded to Leiturn for Range finding course.

Date: 13/6/17

Early morning parades. Remainder of day spent on striking Bivouacs and clearing camping area preparatory to morning to relieve 1/4 Royal Scots of 52 Div in left sector, Marina View. Battn moored independently by companies starting at 1800. Relief completed by 2045. Battn area at Dorset House together with area stores taken over by 1/5 KOSB.

Away from the Western Front : 18th – 31st May 1917.

  In reserve at Dorset House

iodine bottles

Conditions in the trenches facing Gaza were particularly unpleasant ; intermittent shelling from the enemy plus flies, extreme heat and lack of water .  Battalions only stayed there for a few weeks at a time, moving between the front lines and the rear sector on a regular basis. However, being ‘ in reserve ‘ was no rest cure as the men were still working hard to improve the defences  as well as training.

By mid-May 1917, the Sanitary Corps had been able to oversee the erection of incinerators, latrines and some  washing  facilities. Anti-fly solution was sprayed regularly too but the sickness rate had begun to creep up again as men fell victim to  septic sores. These were difficult to treat in the dust and sand of the  trenches and dug outs. Usually men had to be evacuated back to hospitals back in Egypt. Stationed alongside the Finsbury Rifles, the 1/5 Bedfordshire battalion issued a bottle of iodine and cotton wool to each company. It was to be applied to any graze or cut, no matter how slight, that the men received when building the defences and dug- outs . Prevention was better than cure!

Date: 18/5/17

Battn in support. Battn relieved by the 24th Welsh Regt of 231.move completed about 2000.

Location DORSET HOUSE Date: 19/5/17

Routine as usual. Battn in reserve area.

Date: 20/5/17

Divine service. Routine as usual.

Date: 21/5/17

Routine as usual. Speculative training and working party Res.

Date: 22/5/17

Routine as usual. Speculative training, usual working parties.

Date: 23/5/17

Routine as usual. Speculative training and working parties – following words of the underranking officer NCOs and men and after ……Talltreadle DSO. Lieut D.H Robertson Military Cross 450.925. Sgt RW Leord. 451.471 Rfn GS Brughton: 453.120 Rfe W Dox. Military Medal. Apps etc. Lieut 286 117 5/17.

Location DORSET HOUSE Date: 24/5/17

Routine as usual. Speculative training. And usual working parties.

Date: 25/5/17

Routine as usual. Speculative training and usual working parties. Lt and Adj. A.L.GARRAWAY returned from hospital.

Date: 26/5/17

Routine as usual and speculative training.

Date: 27/5/17

Divine service under Rgt arrangements. Working party of 100 men furnished. Usual routine.

Date: 28/5/17

Routine as usual. Specialised training and usual working parties. Lieut H.A Goldschmidt returned from hospital.

Date: 29/5/17

Battn being inoculated against cholera. Specialist training.

Date: 30/5/17

Battn attended. Gas demonstration at 1000 – specialist training.

Date: 31/5/17

Specialist and platoon training. Working party supplied to Eastern Force R.E Officer. Usual camp routine.

Lt Col. Comdy 1/11 London REGT.

Away from the Western Front : 1st – 17th May 1917

Digging Decoy Trenches in the Front Line

Turkish_Machine_Gunners_2nd_Gaza_1917

Ottoman machine gunners near Gaza 1917

After the failure of the two attacks on Gaza  it was clear that the EEF needed to have far higher levels of manpower and equipment in order to be able to break through the Ottoman defences. This would take time to put in place. The front line was now the trench system to the south of Gaza where the Finsbury Rifles were to spent the next few months.

The 54th (East Anglia) Division instructed its battalions to construct dummy trenches and machine gun posts.  The war diary shows that the Finsbury Rifles spent much of their time digging trenches and dug outs. This was no mean task in summer heat with so little water available to drink. Did these decoy defences mislead the enemy into wasting ammunition on destroying them as intended? There are frequent references to heavy shelling and enemy sniper fire throughout the summer so it is likely that they did.

Date 1/5/17

With the exception of heavy shelling of gully the day has been quiet and usual digging in on our trenches.

Date 2/5/17

In Bivouac. Fatigues to right of working party, improving next dugout. Desultory artillery fire on both sides.

Date 3/5/17

In Bivouac. Fatigues to right working parties in front improving next dugout, reciprocal artillery fire.

Date 4/5/17

Dug out, reciprocal artillery fire. Capt W.S Even left for ‘Staff Bravo’ Mena and Cairo.

Date 5/5/17

Fatigues as required. Battn under orders to relieve 156 Brigade.  Mansora Ridge. Usual artillery fire relief affected, Battn took our left sector from Gaza.  Mendur Track. R17 6.10.15 (M of L) Large 1/40,000. High amount of artillery fire.

Location MANSORA RIDGE Date: 7/5/17

Battn in front line trenches, quiet day, during day, work was put in on dug out in next area; during night work on ……..front line trenches was carried out leapt Capt (?)  RAMC left for …..being replaced by Capt N.M Cumming RAMC.

Date 8/5/17

Battn in front line trenches, usual artillery fire, work in day on dug out in next area during night work on improving. Front line trenches.

Date 9/5/17

Battn in front line trenches, usual artillery fire, work in day on dugout, in rest area.

Date 10/5/17

Battn in front line trenches, usual artillery fare, other than that, quiet day.

Date: 11/5/17

Battn in front line trenches about…night two Turkish….taken, usual artillery fire…etc.

Location MANSORA RIDGE Date: 12/5/17

Battn relieved on the front line trenches, by the 1st 5th Bedford Regt work on communication trenches.

Date: 13/5/17

Battn in support, usual work in communication trenches.

Date: 14/5/17

Battn in support, usual work in communication trenches.

Date: 15/5/17

Battn in support, usual work in communication trenches.

Date: 16/5/17

Battn in support, usual work in communication trenches.

Date: 17/5/17

Battn in support, usual work in communication trenches

Away from the Western Front : 20th – 30th April 1917

 On Sheikh Abbas Ridge

Trenches before Gaza James mc Bey

Trenches before Gaza,1917. A view across a series of trenches.James McBey ©IWM (Art.IWM.ART.1591)

After the disastrous Second Battle of Gaza as part of the 162 Brigade , the Finsbury Rifles retreated behind the Sheikh Abbas ridge. Over a third of the battalion had been killed, wounded or posted as missing   – all recorded as casualties in the battalion war diary. In spite of the heavy losses, it was business as usual. A new communication line and trenches had to be dug while shelling continued from the enemy artillery behind the Gaza defences.

 

Date: 20/4/17

Owing to heavy casualties Total reorganisation of battn necessary. Fairly quiet day with reciprocal artillery fire. 2nd Lt A.R. ALDERS to hospital.

Date 21/.4/17

Usual artillery fire and otherwise quiet day. 4 Officers, 300 Other Ranks digging new line and communication trenches during night 21/22 April.

Date: 22/4/17

Usual artillery fire, otherwise quiet day. 2 officers 300 other ranks digging new line and communications.

Date: 23/4/17

Usual artillery fire, otherwise quiet day. 2 officers, 300 other ranks digging new line and communications.

Date: 23/4/17

Usual artillery fire otherwise quiet day – 2 officers 300 OR digging our line and communications.

Date: 24/4/17

Usual artillery fire. Otherwise quiet day – 2 Officers 300 OR digging over line and communications: 2nd Lieut AR ALDERS  returned to duty.

Date: 25/4/17

Usual artillery fire: Battn on front line trenches. Patrol work on trench line in accordance with brigade working.

Date: 26/4/17

Usual artillery fire, Battn on Front Line Trenches. Patrols, work in trench line, long sniping by the evening.

Date: 27/4/17

Heavy artillery fire, Battn in front line trenches. Long Patrol at Waddi Mukademe work in a trench line,  general observations of enemy line. 2nd Lieut AR & Alders re-entered  hospital.

Date: 28/4/17

Usual artillery. First sniper brought in and battn on front line. Usual trench work in trench line and communications trench.

Date: 29/4/17

Usual artillery fire, 4 prisoners brought in from front line trenches work and trench line and communications. General observations of line.

Date: 30/4/17

Usual artillery fire, work in trench communications in accordance with Brigade working together

Away from the Western Front : 18th – 19th April 1917

 The Second Battle of Gaza

Second_Battle_of_Gaza_map

Having failed to take Gaza by surprise,  Lieutenant-General  Murray  drew up a more cautious plan for a second attempt to capture the town. While the Royal Navy would shell Gaza from the sea, three  infantry divisions would attack together, supported by an intense barrage of artillery fire as well as new technology – tanks and gas shells. This meant that the EEF would be attacking across open ground in full view of the enemy – a risky tactic.

However, the Ottoman forces had not waited idly for the next offensive. More troops had been sent in to reinforce the garrison and the defence system in and around Gaza had been strengthened. Now it stretched 12 miles to the east along the key route to Beersheba.

The artillery commanders had queried the order to bombard the enemy. They warned that the distance between the artillery lines and the enemy was simply too great to guarantee accuracy. They also knew there was a danger that they would run out of ammunition during the course of the attack.

Inevitably, their protests were overruled by GHQ and inevitably those on the ground were proven right.

…This bombardment was the most futile thing possible resulting … only in warning the enemy of … the attack and in gross waste of ammunition …

The Second Battle of Gaza was a failure with heavy losses. General Murray’s days as commander-in-chief of the EEF were numbered. His general staff and officers had lost confidence in him as well as the War Office in the United Kingdom.

 

Location INSEIRAT independently Date: 1/4/17

Orders received for the battalion to move to line Y 16.8.3 (point 300) W31C 8.3 and deploy for attack on that position of SHEIKH ABBAS RIDGE from w26b1.8. to w25b1.8. 165 Brigade (1/8 HANTS) on our right, 1/5 BEDFORDS on left. Move forward from position of deployment at 0745. Position taken after slight opposition. Casualties 1 killed 12 wounded.

Location SHEIKH ABBAS Date: 18/4/17

Reciprocal shelling by artillery. Further advance orders for tomorrow.

Date: 19/4/17

Advance orders to commence at 0730 after 2 hours bombardment by artillery, the first 40 minutes of which to be by “special” (gas) shells. Battalion to move in support of 1/4 Northants and 1/10 LONDON on objective (trenches) from w15b8.7 to WADI MUKADDEME. As soon as time of advance arrived men went over ridge in artillery formation. Enemy at once putting up a barrage of H.E and Shrapnel causing heavy casualties. 10 London on left were soon held up but 4 Northants pushed on. 11 London then pushed on with them. The two battalions (11 London and 4 Northants) eventually establishing a firing line about 500 yards from objective and overlooking the BEERSHEBA ROAD. Enemy’s trenches slightly semicircular, the flanks being pushed forward.

Enemy very strong in machine guns bringing very hot machine gun fire causing heavy casualties; practically all at Lewis gun  wiped out, also nearly all men who got on a ridge facing Battn’s objective at about 400 from it. The dead and wounded on this ridge remained as a line of skirmishes the Turks sweeping them with M.G fire at intervals through the day consequently men wounded early in day, were killed and all men were riddled by bullets. Greatest difficulty in getting up ammunition and in establishing communication from front line to Battn H.Q.    Messengers time after time becoming casualties. Front line held on until dusk but by that time men reduced to small parties of one or two. At dusk 1/5 Bedford relieved 1/11 LONDON and 1/4 Northants, both of which Battns had lost heavily. Line taken up by 1/5 Bedford considerably nearer bivouac area than the day time. Casualties: Officers 13, other ranks 366.

second battle of Gaza map 10.30am

©Cyril Falls and George MacMunn (maps)Official History of the Great War Military Operations